|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 53-55
Massive hemobilia in a case of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: A rare complication after open cholecystectomy
Bappaditya Har, Somen Sanfui, Debraj Saha, Bitan Kumar Chattopadhyay
Department of General Surgery, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
|Date of Web Publication||1-Feb-2016|
Room No 230, New PG Hostel, SGPGIMS, Rae Bareilly Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh - 226 014
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm with hemobilia occurs less frequently as a complication of open cholecystectomy than laparoscopic cholecystectomy; however, given its severe nature, it needs to be managed promptly. Patient should be evaluated with high index of suspicion, presenting with post cholecystectomy pain with jaundice. They should be treated with angiographic coil embolization of hepatic arteries as a first line management, which is successful in the majority of bleedings: in a minority of cases, even a laparotomy is needed. However, proper use of electrocautery may decrease the occurane of psedoaneurysm. Case Presentation: Here we present a case history of a 50 years old female presenting with massive hematochezia & jaundice with hemodynamic instability, 3 months following open cholecystectomy due to leaking pseudoanurysm from right hepatic artert & treated successfully with angiographic coil embolisation.
Keywords: Angioembolisation, hemobilia, hepatic artery, pseudoaneurysm
|How to cite this article:|
Har B, Sanfui S, Saha D, Chattopadhyay BK. Massive hemobilia in a case of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: A rare complication after open cholecystectomy. Saudi Surg J 2015;3:53-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Har B, Sanfui S, Saha D, Chattopadhyay BK. Massive hemobilia in a case of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: A rare complication after open cholecystectomy. Saudi Surg J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Dec 3];3:53-5. Available from: https://www.saudisurgj.org/text.asp?2015/3/2/53/175209
| Introduction|| |
Hemobilia is defined as hemorrhage into the biliary tract. Nowadays iatroginic cause has become thec most common cause of hemobilia. Common bile duct stone, cholecystitis, gallbladder cancer, hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAPA), parasitic infestation, and liver abscess can also cause hemobilia.,,,,,,, Rupture/leak of a HAPA into the hepatobiliary tract is a rare cause of hemobilia after open cholecystectomy., Quincke's described first the classic triad of pseudoaneurysm of hepatic artery - upper abdominal pain, obstructive jaundice and hemobilia that is present only in one-third of the patient. Here, we present a case of acute episodes of severe hemobilia with hematochezia following open cholecystectomy in a 50-year-old female, due to ruptured HAPA, and she is treated successfully with emergency angiographic coil embolization.
| Case Report|| |
A 50 year old female was referred to us due to several episodes of massive hematochezia with right upper abdominal pain. She underwent open cholecystectomy 3 months back with uneventful recovery. On admission, the patient was conscious, had hypotension (86/60 mmHg), tachycardia, and jaundice. Initial laboratory values are mentioned in [Table 1]. After stabilization, an urgent ultrasonography (USG) with Doppler was done, and it showed a well-defined cystic lesion related gallbladder fossa extending up to porta with color filling-in with arterial pulsation on Doppler [Figure 1] and dilated intrahepatic biliary radical. The patient was managed in the meantime with adequate blood component transfusion and fluid resuscitation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) (triphasic) showed a 5 cm × 5.8 cm × 6 cm hypodense area with delayed enhancement, suggesting a hematoma. There is also a 1.8 cm × 1.2 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the right branch of hepatic artery adjacent to the hematoma [Figure 2]. An urgent transfemoral angiography was planned, and the aneurysm was seen arising from the right branch of hepatic artery and hematoma sac was found to be feeding from the aneurysm [Figure 3]. The right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm was successfully embolized using coils both proximally and distally, and post embolization angiographic film showed adequate embolization with no fill-in and adequate collateral in both lobes of the liver [Figure 4].
|Figure 1: Ultrasonography color Doppler showing well-defined cystic lesion in gall bladder fossa with color fill-in with arterial pulsation|
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|Figure 2: (a) Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (axial) showing a cystic swelling (hematoma) with delayed contrast enhancement and the pseudoaneurysm of right hepatic artery (b) contrast-enhanced computed tomography (coronal) showing a cystic swelling (hematoma) with delayed contrast enhancement and the pseudoaneurysm of right hepatic artery|
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|Figure 3: Angiography showing aneurysm arising from the right hepatic artery with a hematoma filling from the aneurysm|
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|Figure 4: Angiography showing aneurysm arising from the right hepatic artery after coil embolization both proximally and distally without fill-in|
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| Discussion|| |
HAPAs are uncommon, but potentially lethal. The right hepatic artery is the most common artery involved. The first case of hepatic artery aneurysm was described in 1819. The main causes of HAPA were atherosclerosis, medio intimal degeneration, and trauma., HAPA is now caused most commonly by trauma, mainly iatrogenic. Hepatic, biliary, or pancreatic procedures (e.g., liver biopsy, cholecystectomy, hepatectomy, and biliary transhepatic drainage) can cause HAPA. Although HAA may present with epigastric or subcostal pain, the most common presentation of HAPA is bleeding that may present with rupture, several months to years after undergoing any of these procedures. Inadvertent use of electrocautery during operation may cause injury to the vessel wall which later on may form a pseudoaneurysm. During laparoscopic also inexperienced use of electrocautery may injure the vessel wall by direct or capacitive coupling. Although USG with Doppler may suggest the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm (suggestive with a color fill-in), it may not be present always and it should always be differentiated from local collection/abscess/cyst before any percutaneous intervention. CECT (triphasic) is a very reliable tool confirming the pseudoaneurysm, but angiography is diagnostic. Angiography has also the benefit of performing therapeutic maneuver such as coil embolization which is safe, less morbid, and high success rate. A repeat embolization must be considered before laparotomy and surgery should be considered as a last resort. Furthermore, proper use of electrocautery may decrease the incidence of pseudoaneurysm and associated complications.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]